DECORATIVE GLULAM PROPERTIES
|TIMBER||BOTANICAL NAME||DENSITY kg/m3||LAMINATE mm||THICKNESS mm||BUTT JOINTS||RADIAL SHRINKAGE %||TANGENTIAL SHRINKAGE %||JANKA kN||WORKABILITY||DURABILITY (Class)||STRENGTH GROUP|
|American Oak||Quercus Alba||750||30||40||Yes||3.0%||5.0%||Easy to work. Iron when in contact with damp wood may cause black tannin stain.||Moderate (3)||SD6|
|American Oak Slimline||Quercus Alba||750||90||33||No||3.0%||5.0%|
|American Oak Classic||Quercus Alba||750||90||40||No||3.0%||5.0%|
|Amercian Black Walnut||Juglans nigra||630||90||33||No||4.5%||7.8%||4.5||Easy to work, planer tear out may be a problem. Glues well.||Moderate (3)||SD2|
|American Cherry (Myrtle)||Nothafagus Cunninghamii||710||-||-||-||3.5%||6.6%||5.9||Easy to glue, finish and work. There is a tendency to tear out, use sharp tool edges.||Moderate (3)||SD3-SD4|
|Baltic Pine||Pinus Sylvestris||500||-||-||-||2.0%||4.5%||2.1||Easy to glue, finish and work except for the knots.||Moderate (3)||SD6|
|Blue Gum||Eucalyptus Saligna||850||19||38||Yes||5.0%||9.0%||9.0||Relatively easy to work. Glues well.||Moderate (3)||SD3|
|Blackbutt||Eucalyptus Pilularis||900||40||40||Yes||3.0%||6.5%||9.1||-||Durable (2)||SD2|
|Blackbutt Classic||Eucalyptus Pilularis||900||90||40||No||3.0%||6.5%||9.1|
|Brushbox||Lophostemon Confertus||900||19||34||Yes & No||5.0%||10.0%||9.5||Dulls tool edges due to silica. Works and finishes well.||Moderate (3)||SD3|
|Canadian Rock Maple||Acer Saccharum||700||19||35||Yes||3.0%||6.0%||6.4||Easy to work. Take care in nailing.||Low (4)||SD4|
|Celery Top Pine||Phyllocladus Aspelenifolius||650||19||35||Yes||2.0%||4.0%||4.5||May not be easy to work with due to wood compression.||Durable (2)||SD5|
|Cypress Pine||Callitris Glaucophylla||680||19||34||Yes||2.5%||3.0%||6.6||Brittle but will accept nail without splitting. Sanding dust may be irritable to some.||Durable (2)||SD6|
|Damanu||Callophyllum spp.||600||33||35||Yes||2.5%||4.0%||4.6||Generally easy to work. Glues well.||Low (4)||SD6|
|European Beech||Fagus Sylvatice||710||21||30||yes||4.0%||6.0%||6.0||Easy to work, glue and finish. Pre-drilling may be required for nailing.||Low (4)||SD4|
|European Birch||Betula Pubescens||670||22||35||Yes||3.0%||6.0%||4.5||Easy to work, glue and finish||Low (4)||SD4|
|European Elm||Ulmus Pumula||600||25||35||Yes||-||-||-||Works, glues and finishes well.||Moderate (3)||-|
|European Oak||Quercus Petraea||690||25||35||Yes||3.0%||6.0%||5.5||Easy to work. Iron when in contact with damp wood may cause black tannin stain.||Durable (2)||SD5|
|European Walnut||Juglans Regia||640||22||35||Yes||2.0%||4.0%||5.9||Easy to work. Iron when in contact with damp wood may cause black tannin stain.||Moderate (3)||SD4|
|Fijian Mahogany||Swietenia Macrophylla||570||87||40||No||1.5%||2.5%||3.6||Sharp tools are needed to avoid ‘wooliness’. Glues and nails well.||Moderate (3)||SD6|
|Hoop Pine||Araucaria Cunninghamii||530||20||35||No||2.5%||3.5%||3.4||Works and glues well.||Low (4)||SD5|
|Hoop Pine Panel||Araucaria Cunninghamii||530||42-50||19||No||2.5%||3.5%||3.4|
|Jarrah||Eucalytus Marginata||820||30||40||Yes||5.0%||7.5%||8.5||Works, glues and finishes well. Care when nailing.||Durable (2)||SD4|
|Jarrah Slimline||Eucalytus Marginata||820||90||33||Yes||5.0%||7.5%||8.5|
|Jarrah Panel||Eucalytus Marginata||820||68-90||19||No||5.0%||7.5%||8.5|
|Merbau||Instia Bijuga||830||45||30||Yes||1.5%||2.5%||8.6||May have gum build up on cutting tools. Saw dust may be irritable to some.||Durable (2)||SD3|
|Rosewood||Pterocarpus Indicus||610||63||40||Yes / No||1.0%||2.0%||4.7||Easy to work, glue and finish.||Durable (2)||SD5|
|Nyatoh||Palaquium spp.||650||90||30||Yes||5.0%||6.5%||5.0||Dulls tool edges due to silica but usually works and finishes well.||Low (4)||SD7|
|Pacific Teak||Vitex Cofassus||800||70||40||No||3.5%||6.0%||5.0||Easy to work. Glues well.||Durable (2)||SD4|
|Radiata Pine||Pinus Radiata||500||90||33||No||3.0%||4.5%||3.3||Easy to works except for the knots.||Low (4)||SD6|
|Recycled Red Hardwood||Mixed species||700-950||90||40||No||-||-||-||-||n/a||n/a|
|Recycled Brown Hardwood||Mixed species||700-950||90||40||No||-||-||-||-||n/a||n/a|
|Recycled Oregon||Douglas Fir||560||-||-||-||2.5%||4.0%||3.1||Care is needed when dressing and nailing.||Low (4)||SD5|
|River Red Gum||Eucalyptus Rostrata||900||-||-||-||4.0%||8.0%||10.0||Care is needed when dressing due to its interlocked grain.||Durable (2)||SD5|
|Rosegum||E. Grandis||570||87||40||No||4.5%||7.5%||8||Works, glues and finishes well||Moderate (3)||SD4|
|Spotted Gum||C. Maculata||1000||40||40||Yes||4.3%||6.1%||11||Not difficult to work with. Somewhat corrosive to aluminium||Durable (2)||SD2|
|Spotted Gum Classic||C. Maculata||1000||90||40||No||4.3%||6.1%||11|
|Tasmanian Blackwood||Acacia Malanoxylon||640||19 / 30||40||Yes||1.5%||4.0%||5.9||Easy to work, glue and finish. Sanding dust may be irritable to some.||Moderate (3)||SD4|
|Tasmanian Blackwood Slimline||Acacia Malanoxylon||640||70 / 90||33||Yes|
|Tasmanian Oak||E.regnans, obliqua, deligatensis||720||30||40||Yes & No||2.1-6.6%||8.5-13.0%||5.0||Easy to work, glue and finish.||Low (4)||SD3|
|Tasmanian Oak Slimline||E.regnans, obliqua, deligatensis||720||90||33||No||2.1-6.6%||8.5-13.0%||5.0|
|Tasmanian Oak Panel||E.regnans, obliqua, deligatensis||720||70||19||No||2.1-6.6%||8.5-13.0%||5.0|
|Tulip Oak||Argyrodendron Actinophyllum||850||-||-||-||4.5%||8.5%||7.3||-||Low (4)||SD3|
Timber availability and manufacturing specifications may vary from time to time.
There are two measures of hardness referred to in regards to finished timber products. These are abrasion & indentation resistance.
Abrasion is a direct function of the finish coat/s, their hardness as well as their ability to flex.
The usual measure of the ability of the substrate to withstand indentation is the Janka Hardness Test. This measures the force required to embed an 11.28 mm (0.444 in.) steel ball to half its diameter into the wood, thus forming an indentation with projected area of 1 sq. cm.
The Force is expressed in Kilo-Newtons (kN). 1kN = ~100Kg, thus a figure of 5kN means that it requires 500Kg to make 1sq.cm2 indentation that is nearly half a family car! This is more a critical factor when deciding on a species for timber flooring, (where a stiletto on dance floor can make deep indentations on softer timbers) than for, say, kitchen tops.
Kiln Dried timbers have Janka hardness ranging from c.1.5kN for some species of Spruces and Firs to 15.0kN for some exotic species like Wandoo in Western Australia.
Where it is difficult to obtain enough long laminates, finger jointing of laminates is necessary. Our finger joints are turned so that a butt-joint is shown on the face rather than the fingers, which will be generally hidden by the adjoining laminates.
DGI has two types of finger joint profiles:
- Structural finger joints designed for strength with long fingers and a tip gap to ensure parallel & strong joints. These are used in the structural members such as beams and posts.
- Decorative finger joints with aesthetic factors in mind. They have shorter fingers and negligible gaps at the tip.
Advantages of finger jointing laminates:
- Makes it possible to produce longer than available timber stock, such as structural beams up to 20M long.
- Improve the mechanical properties of laminates by cutting out timber defects.
- Improves the appearance of decorative products by reducing the amount of superficial defects.
- Utilise resources otherwise destined to be too short for quality products.
Below are examples of both decorative and structural finger joints. However, finger joint configurations do change with development in technology. One thing that will never change, is the fact that random sample structural finger joints from daily productions are being tested for its strength and monitored in accordance to stringent Australian Standard.
Density of timber is a measure of weight in kg per cubic metre. The figures provided are based on Air Dried Density where the sample has an average 12% moisture content (MC).
This MC is the average for Sydney, and ultimately all timber will gradually achieve this due to the average environmental humidity prevailing on the mid East coast of Australia. The MC will be lower in Southern states or desert regions, amd higher in tropical areas.
Density is closely related to hardness of the timber.
Generally more dense timbers will have better mechanical properties & will also usually be harder.